C. Silvio. Tennessee Wesleyan College.
Only innovative projects for which either progress made buy ezetimibe 10 mg otc cholesterol on blood test, or 5 The company discloses evidence of how its product brochures human and/or fnancial resources are disclosed generic ezetimibe 10mg with mastercard cholesterol test inaccurate, are taken into and packaging adaptations aim to facilitate rational use for soci- consideration generic ezetimibe 10mg on line cholesterol test san jose. This is evidenced by both a public commitment to engaging in pro- 5 The company publicly discloses the complete contents of all vol- active activities that foster competition (e. The company actively engages in issuing multiple voluntary licences 1 The company discloses publicly or via the index a general policy and/or non-assert declarations for patented products within the of compliance with competition law. Pool for manufacture and distribution of relevant products, and for 0 The company does not include in its voluntary licences any of development of combination therapies for products relevant to the the top middle-income countries by highest burden of disease Index, in countries within the Index scope. The company includes a broad range of countries within the geo- 2,5 The company has publicly committed to activities aimed at mit- graphic scope of its licences, including middle-income countries igating the potential public health impact of the exclusivity con- outside of sub-Saharan Africa with comparatively high burdens of ferred by patent protection. The company has a policy in place that describes how and when to 0 The company does not have such a policy. Alert System, and/or other relevant organisations within seven 5 The company s strategic approach and rationale for investing in days of discovery (unless local laws and regulations specify health infrastructure-related philanthropic projects in countries otherwise). R&D capacity building needs through partnerships with univer- sities and/or public sector research organisations in countries within the Index scope. Ministry of Health, procurement, logistics and distribu- in 1 or 2 elements* of the supply chain. Index scope that:a) clearly address local needs, b) involve rep- 4 The company has introduced 2 innovative (unique in the utable partners,* c) are free of confict of interest or confict of sector) approaches to local capacity building as above, but does interest is appropriately managed. External guidelines are of diferent population segments, taking into nership agreements and/or developed in-house. This clusivity in specifed territories, waiving patent Promotional activities that are aimed at the gen- includes quality control along the entire supply rights, royalty-free provisions). Outcomes can be meas- A strategy specifcally intended to improve ured by the company or provided by recipients access to medicine, that includes all the typical Falsifed medicine of the donated products. This applies to the prod- Pharmaceutical value chain uct, its container or other packaging or label- The related steps through which companies Ad hoc donation programmes ling information. Falsifcation can apply to both develop, produce, distribute and supply safe and [Working defnition, used for analysis] branded and generic products. Medical products (whether generic or during emergency situations, such as conficts branded) that are not authorised for marketing Performance management system and natural disasters, are also included here. The adaptation of existing/registered New High-priority product gaps refer to product gaps This includes performance measurement, i. Pharmaceutical companies use many diferent cines, diagnostics, vector control products, and Programmes that have ended before June 1st criteria to assess afordability. Additionally, any activi- ties that were already assessed in the 2014 Index Equitable pricing Inter-country equitable pricing will not be scored as innovative or new in rel- [Working defnition, used for analysis] [Working defnition, used for analysis] evant indicators. The Index team assesses the A targeted pricing strategy which aims at Where companies determine their pricing strat- most recent policies, codes and stances, up to improving access to medicine for those in need egy at the country level and take into account fnal submission. Per Data source for the R&D pipeline is products submitted by disease, the set of priority coun- the company for scoring and analysis in the Index, as well as tries includes fve low-income coun- any projects for infectious diseases in scope identifed on tries (World Bank defned) in order the company s website. Contraceptive methods and Product diversion devices are included under maternal and neonatal health Channelling lower-priced medicines conditions. The total segments to high-income segments, ments (graph) number of products difers from the Products per disease or from public to private sector, within category graph if the company has diagnostics, vector-con- a country. Emphasis here is on company behav- Pipeline by development phase This graph only covers medicines and vaccines. The total iour in markets with absence of ade- Innovative products and Adaptive number of projects noted in the text of the portfolio and quate pharmacovigilance legislation products (graphs) pipeline section includes other product types, if relevant and enforcement. Structured donation programmes [Working defnition, used for analy- sis] A gift of products for which a defned strategy exists as to the type, volume and destination of donated products. Structured donation programmes are long-term, targeted donation pro- grammes based on country needs, usu- ally targeted to control, eliminate or eradicate a disease. Tracer product [Working defnition, used for analy- sis] Products that account for highest sales revenue in relevant countries covered by the Index for which equitable pricing strategies are available. These Communicable lists of countries have been used for certain metrics in Lower respiratory the equitable pricing and registration analysis. Iyer: Patricia Wolf Photo Disclaimer The Access to Medicine Foundation gratefully respects the permission granted to reproduce the copyright material in this report. Every rea- sonable efort has been made to trace copy- right holders and to obtain their permission for the use of copyright material. Should you believe that any content in this report does infringe any rights you may possess, please contact us at info@atmindex. Disclaimer As a multi-stakeholder and collaborative pro- ject, the fndings, interpretations and conclu- sions expressed herein may not necessarily refect the views of all members of the stake- holder groups or the organisations they repre- sent. The report is intended to be for informa- tion purposes only and is not intended as pro- motional material in any respect. The mate- rial is not intended as an ofer or solicitation for the purchase or sale of any fnancial instrument. The report is not intended to provide account- ing, legal or tax advice or investment recommen- dations.
Introduction xi Introduction Citing Medicine provides assistance to authors in compiling lists of references for their publications buy ezetimibe 10mg online cholesterol test margin of error, to editors in revising such lists order ezetimibe 10mg without prescription xanthones cholesterol, to publishers in setting reference standards for their authors and editors purchase ezetimibe 10mg visa cholesterol levels over 1000, and to librarians and others in formatting bibliographic citations. National Library of Medicine recommended formats for bibliographic citation [Internet]. Be aware, however, that individual publishers may not accept references to all the types of items presented here. Papers that have been accepted for publication but not yet published, papers or abstracts of papers that were never published, and written personal communication such as letters or e-mails in particular may not be approved. Those familiar with the Manual are aware that its scope is limited to journal articles. However, if a precedent was established by the Manual, as for example with pagination and dates, this precedent is carried over into other types of bibliographic material. Structure Citing Medicine is divided into 26 chapters, each one representing a separate bibliographic format. Formats range from print publications such as books and journals to blogs and wikis on the Internet. Each chapter has three distinct sections: Sample Citation and Introduction, Citation Rules, and Examples of Citations. The sample citation is a diagram with labels for all of the parts of a citation and includes punctuation; the introduction provides information on the primary factors in citing the particular format. We believe that this section will satisfy the needs of many users who need only cursory information. Section two, Citation Rules, gives step-by-step instructions for constructing a citation. Each part of a citation is presented in the order in which it would appear in a reference. For each part, General Rules provide basic information (for example, authors should be listed surname first) and Specific Rules cover special situations, such as handling organizations as author. Required parts are those necessary to uniquely identify an item; optional parts provide additional information to assist in locating an item and/or deciding if it is worthwhile to obtain an item. For example, pagination is optional for books, but the length of a book usually can provide an indication of the coverage of the subject. Finally, the third section, Examples of Citations, includes sample citations that illustrate the rules given in section two. Because of the large volume of references needed, it is not possible to verify all information with the original, as an author would for a list of references. In an effort to illustrate unusual situations that might occur for which no actual examples can be found, citation fragments are created. Links from the Specific Rules to these appendixes are made throughout the publication. For example, if the full journal title is used instead of the title abbreviation in one reference, it should be used in all journal article references. The user may also wish to consider the purpose for which the references are being created. For example, Citing Medicine permits the publisher name to be given in an abbreviated format if the author and publisher are the same. Thus if the University of Virginia is the author, it may be abbreviated to "The University" as publisher. However, if the references will be used in a database in which the publisher name is searchable, the name should be given in full in both places. When citing any type of format, one rule is primary: an author should never place in a reference list a document that he or she has not seen. The medical literature is full of references that have been cited from other references, serving only to perpetuate erroneous information. If a document is important enough to be cited in a reference list, it is equally important to examine the original for citation information. These versions may appear identical in content, but because errors or other changes may have been introduced in the conversion from one format to another, they may in fact differ in significant ways. Also, once a document is in electronic format, changes and additions can easily be made that further distance the content from the more fixed print version. In particular, do not cite a document as if it were a print one when the electronic version was used. Introduction xiii Reference Lists Versus In-Text References References are presented in two ways in medical publications. Within the text of a publication, individual references are presented in an abbreviated format that refers back to the list. For example, if a reference by Zelinski is the first one referred to in the text, then the Zelinski reference is number one in the list.
Proceedings of the European Atrial Fibrillation Consensus Conference; 2001 Sep 16; Bologna cheap 10 mg ezetimibe cholesterol meaning, Italy purchase 10mg ezetimibe with mastercard cholesterol levels different units. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Parts of Conference Papers The general format for a reference to a part of a conference paper purchase ezetimibe 10mg line cholesterol medication in the elderly, including punctuation: - with a title for the book of proceedings as well as a conference title: 292 Citing Medicine - with only a conference title: Examples of Citations to Parts of Conference Papers Rather than citing a conference paper as a whole, separately identified portions of a paper may be cited. Because a reference should start with the individual or organization with responsibility for the intellectual content of the publication, begin a reference to a part of a paper with the paper itself, then follow it with the information about the part. Medical texts frequently contain charts, figures, and other illustrative material that has been reproduced with permission from other sources. Citation Rules with Examples for Parts of Conference Papers Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. Risunok 6 Parartema 4 Romanize or translate titles in character-based languages (Chinese, Japanese). Ichiran-hiyo 3 or [Table 3, ] Ignore diacritics, accents, and special characters in names. Conference Publications 295 Example Entries for Name and Number/Letter of the Part 1. Part of a paper with title containing a Greek letter or other special character 7. Part of a paper with a constructed title Location (Pagination) of the Part of the Conference Paper (required) General Rules for Location (Pagination) Begin location with "p. Box 91 Part paginated separately A part such as an appendix or a group of tables may be given its own pagination and begin anew with page one. Part of a paper with no page number provided Examples of Citations to Parts of Conference Papers 1. Optical multi-channel monitoring of skin blood pulsations for cardiovascular assessment. In: 6th Congress on Equine Medicine and Surgery; 1999 Dec 12-14; Geneva, Switzerland. Appendix B, World Organisation for Animal Health Guidelines on antimicrobial resistance; p. Les fluctuations cycliques fondamentales des economies capitalists - le model [Fundamental cyclic fluctuations of capitalist economies - the model]. Annexe, Definition de la transformation de Laplace (1749-1827) [Appendix, Definition of Laplace transformation (1749-1827)]; p. In: 1986 European Meeting of the Toxicology Forum; 1986 Sep 22-26; Geneva, Switzerland. Part of a paper in a language other than English Morel E, Vialle R, Rillardon L, Guigui. Tableau 4, Comparison du groupe spondylolisthesis (n=53) au group temoin (n=300); p. Tableau 4, Comparison du groupe spondylolisthesis (n=53) au group temoin (n=300) [Table 4, Comparison of the spondylolisthesis group (n=53) with the control group (n=300)]; p. The neuropsychiatric syndrome of 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabis intoxication in naive subjects. Conference on Marihuana and Medicine; 1998 Mar 20-21; New York University School of Medicine, New York. The neuropsychiatric syndrome of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabis intoxication in naive subjects. In: Pharming the genome: implications of pharmacogenomics for human health and public policy [Internet]. Entire Reports Sample Citation and Introduction Citation Rules with Examples Examples B. Parts of Reports Sample Citation and Introduction Citation Rules with Examples Examples A. Governmental agencies, usually at the federal or state level, issue most technical reports, but reports also originate from universities and other types of research institutions. In citing a technical report, it is important to identify both the sponsoring organization (i. For example, the National Cancer Institute has intramural scientists and may publish their work in report format. Often, however, the sponsoring organization provides funds to another organization that actually performs the research. When this occurs, either the sponsoring organization or the performing organization may publish the report. Some technical reports will have the same type of edition statement found in books, such as "2nd ed. The time period covered by the report is also often included in the edition statement. A citation to a technical report must always include any report numbers provided in the publication, and contract and grant numbers should also be included. Begin with the report number, if present, then follow with any contract or grant number.
This dimension set boundaries not only to the power of the king and the magician generic ezetimibe 10 mg mastercard average cholesterol by age uk, but also to that of the artisan and the technician order ezetimibe 10mg on line what cholesterol medication has the least side effects. Malinowski claims that only industrial society has allowed the use of available tools to their utmost efficiency; in all other societies discount ezetimibe 10mg with amex cholesterol for hair, recognizing sacred limits to the use of sword and of plow was a necessary foundation for ethics. Now, after several generations of licentious technology, the finiteness of nature intrudes again upon our consciousness. Yet at this moment of crisis it would be foolish to found the limits of human actions on some substantive ecological ideology which would modernize the mythic sacredness of nature. Only a widespread agreement on the procedures through which the autonomy of postindustrial man can be equitably guaranteed will lead to the recognition of the necessary limits to human action. Common to all ethics is the assumption that the human act is performed within the human condition. In our industrialized epoch, however, not only the object but also the very nature of human action is new. Traditionally the categorical imperative could circumscribe and validate action as being truly human. The loss of a normative "human condition" introduces a newness not only into the human act but also into the human attitude towards the framework in which a person acts. If this action is to remain human after the framework has been deprived of its sacred character, it needs a recognized ethical foundation within a new imperative. This imperative can be summed up only as follows: "Act so that the effect of your action is compatible with the permanence of genuine human life. Is it possible, without restoring the category of the sacred, to attain the ethics that alone would enable mankind to accept the rigorous discipline of this new imperative? If not, rationalizations could be created for any atrocity: "Why should background radiation not be raised? But only the awe of the sacred, with its unqualified veto, has so far proved independent of the computations of mundane self-interest and the solace of uncertainty about remote consequences. This could be reinvoked as an imperative that genuine human life deserves respect both now and in the future. Recourse to faith provides an escape for those who believe, but it cannot be the foundation for an ethical imperative, because faith is either there or not there; if it is absent, the faithful cannot blame the infidel. Recent history has shown that the taboos of traditional cultures are irrelevant in combatting an overextension of industrial production. The taboos were tied to the values of a particular society and its mode of production, and it is precisely those that were irrevocably lost in the process of industrialization. It is not necessary, probably not feasible, and certainly not desirable to base the limitation of industrial societies on a shared system of substantive beliefs aiming at the common good and enforced by the power of the police. It is possible to find the needed basis for ethical human action without depending on the shared recognition of any ecological dogmatism now in vogue. This alternative to a new ecological religion or ideology is based on an agreement about basic values and on procedural rules. It can be demonstrated that beyond a certain point in the expansion of industrial production in any major field of value, marginal utilities cease to be equitably distributed and over-all effectiveness begins, simultaneously, to decline. If the industrial mode of production expands beyond a certain stage and continues to impinge on the autonomous mode, increased personal suffering and social dissolution set in. In the interim between the point of optimal synergy between industrial and autonomous production and the point of maximum tolerable industrial hegemony political and juridical procedures become necessary to reverse industrial expansion. If these procedures are conducted in a spirit of enlightened self-interest and a desire for survival, and with equitable distribution of social outputs and equitable access to social control, the outcome ought to be a recognition of the carrying capacity of the environment and of the optimal industrial complement to autonomous action needed for the effective pursuit of personal goals. Political procedures oriented to the value of survival in distributive and participatory equity are the only possible rational answer to increasing total management in the name of ecology. The recovery of personal autonomy will thus be the result of political action reinforcing an ethical awakening. They will recognize that only the disciplined limitation of power can provide equitably shared satisfaction. The recovery of autonomous action will depend, not on new specific goals people share, but on their use of legal and political procedures that permit individuals and groups to resolve conflicts arising from their pursuit of different goals. Better mobility will depend, not on some new kind of transportation system, but on conditions that make personal mobility under personal control more valuable. Better learning opportunities will depend, not on more information about the world better distributed, but on the limitation of capital-intensive production for the sake of interesting working conditions. Better health care will depend, not on some new therapeutic standard, but on the level of willingness and competence to engage in self-care. The Right to Health Increasing and irreparable damage accompanies present industrial expansion in all sectors. Most of the remedies now proposed by the social engineers and economists to reduce iatrogenesis include a further increase of medical controls. These so-called remedies generate second-order iatrogenic ills on each of the three critical levels: they render clinical, social, and cultural iatrogenesis self-reinforcing. The most profound iatrogenic effects of the medical technostructure are a result of those nontechnical functions which support the increasing institutionalization of values.